Art Science - Science Art - technology - Modern Art - Dada Surrealism - Leonardo da Vinci
Why Bicycle Wheel
Why is Marcel Duchamp's Bicycle
Marcel Duchamp's 1913 "Readymade" -- a Bicycle Wheel on a Stool -- was "lost" and never seen. He made a 2nd version (circa 1916), and scholars have found at least 5 photographs illustrating this 2nd version in Duchamp's New York Studio. Since this 2nd version was also "lost," according to Duchamp, these 5 photographs by unknown photographers contain all we "know" about this Bicycle Wheel and Stool.
As in an IQ test, to determine how this "Bicycle Wheel on a Stool" looked in its life as a 3-dimensional physical object, we must:
The results of our analysis, based upon the "factual" information provided by these photographs, confirms that, for each of the 5 photographs, each of its corresponding 3-dimensional reconstructions indicates not just one Bicycle Wheel and Stool, but a Bicycle Wheel and Stool in five distinctly different shapes. Moreover, the straight fork disappeared from bicycle design in 1884 with the invention of the modern "safety bicycle" (see Figure 2, 3, 4).
The straight fork bicycle might have
looked fine, but the irregular twists, turns, throws and pitches of a
Bicycle Wheel, when attached to a straight fork, were dangerous and unstable
-- hence, the name given to the bicycle with a straight fork design: the
"Bone Shaker."By 1916-17 (when these photographs were taken), any truly
readymade bicycle fork would have been curved in shape, not straight.
Manufacturers had not produced bicycles with straight forks for over 30
years (see Figure 5 and 6 for buying curved bicycle fork parts in 1918).
Even a very old bicycle in 1916 would have had a curved fork. As such items
were not mass produced, easy to find, or accessible as readymade, a
straight fork would have been difficult for Duchamp to find and build.
However, the straight fork is only part of the story. Importantly, Duchamp
mentioned "unstable equilibrium" versus "stable equilibrium" frequently in
his notes. When considering:
2. The broken rungs and irregular leg
positions of the stools (see Figure 1 and 10)
After making the initial computer 3-D reconstructions of the Bicycle Wheel and Stool, ASRL has built physical models and will soon be broadcasting videos of the experimental results on the ASRL site. Nothing captures the focus and purpose of ASRL better than this example of Duchamp's Bicycle Wheel and Stool in combination with our use of methods in both art and science for developing results of scholarship via critical thinking -- an indisciplinary approach that we plan to share with others interested in what Duchamp called "the beauty of grey matter." Please check our Marcel Duchamp Online Studies Journal, tout-fait.com for other examples of Duchamp's fabrications (in both senses of the word -- constructions and "fibs") as part of his larger game and strategy with and against us, the spectators.
(This "testing" of the "evidence" is not unlike an IQ test. We are challenged (or being challenged) to analyze facts.)
*Fig. 1, 7, 10 ©2003 Succession, Marcel Duchamp, ARS, N.Y./ADAGP, Paris.